The Theft That Aided Inspire ‘Les Miserables’ : The Salt : NPR – Hifow
Minnie Phan for NPR
On a bitterly cold working day in February 1846, the French writer Victor Hugo was on his way to get the job done when he observed one thing that impacted him profoundly.
A slender youthful man with a loaf of bread underneath his arm was remaining led absent by police. Bystanders claimed he was remaining arrested for thieving the loaf. He was dressed in mud-spattered clothes, his bare feet thrust into clogs, his ankles wrapped in bloodied rags in lieu of stockings.
“It made me believe,” wrote Hugo. “The man was no longer a man in my eyes but the specter of la misère, of poverty.”
Any one who has read through or watched Les Misérables will understand that wretched scene quickly. It is retold in The Novel of the Century: The Incredible Experience of Les Misérables, a new reserve out this thirty day period by Princeton professor David Bellos, which tells the interesting tale driving Hugo’s 1862 masterpiece.
When Hugo witnessed that scene, he was currently a few months into creating his novel. Until then, it had centered around Fantine, a weak girl forced into prostitution to gain a crust of bread. Into that plot, he folded the tale of Jean Valjean, an out-of-get the job done peasant who steals a loaf of bread in get feed not just himself but his sister and her seven kids. Hugo lays out the family’s instances in a several brief, harsh strains:
“A pretty challenging winter arrived. Jean had no get the job done. The loved ones had no bread. No bread basically. 7 kids!”
For his criminal offense, Valjean is sentenced to 5 years’ challenging labor. Hugo uses that loaf to smite society’s conscience and emphasize the injustice of the penal process. A great deal of his one,five hundred-website page novel turns on that one particular desperate act. Right after describing the theft, he breaks the narrative thread to make an authorial intervention:
“This is the next time … that the author of this reserve has arrive across the theft of a loaf of bread as the issue of departure for the disaster of a destiny. … English stats demonstrate the point that 4 thefts out of 5 in London have hunger for their speedy induce.”
Hugo fought the social injustice of poverty all his lifestyle. “Like Dickens in England, Hugo desired to warn individuals that one thing had to be done about the paupers in Paris,” writes Bellos. “His maiden speech in the Chambre des pairs, the higher Dwelling, to which he had been appointed a peer, was on la misère. Right after all, he was creating at a time when kids were being imprisoned even for insignificant offences like thieving peaches from a tree.”
Bread, of program, had a radical symbolism in a novel established in the shadow of the French Revolution. No matter if or not the doomed Marie Antoinette claimed, ‘Let them take in cake,’ the rumblings that led to the storming of the Bastille in 1789 started with bread riots.
A string of unsuccessful harvests had caused an acute bread lack and spiraling rates, which brought gals out on the road. Their concentrate on were being the city’s bakeries, which were being ransacked and cleaned out. Most bakeries – together with the one particular Jean Valjean steals from – were being fronted with an iron grating to secure them from the fury of the mob.
There was no sharper marker of economic status in 19th-century France than bread. The nation was divided into prosperous individuals who ate gentle white bread (larton savonné) and weak individuals who ate coarse black bread (larton brutal) made from rye, into which bakers blended sawdust, tree bark and other additives.
The loaf that Valjean steals, in the winter of 1796, is “not the stick loaf we now believe of as ‘French bread,’ ” writes Bellos. “The white-flour baguette was not invented right up until 1838, and it remained a large-priced specialty for decades just after that. The normal loaf of the weak in nineteenth-century France was an oval loaf weighing 4 and a 50 % kilos, with a thick black crust and significant gray food inside. Not the type of factor you would want to take in presently.”
Practically everyone in Les Misérables eats black bread. But, as the novel exhibits, not all black bread is equivalent. The rural weak are decreased to consuming black bread “so challenging that they lower it up with an axe, and soak it for 20-4 hours, right before they can take in it.” In one particular scene, an abject prisoner “elevated to his mouth one thing like a black stone, which he appeared to be gnawing it was bread.” And in a further, a starving youthful female named Eponine catches sight “of a dry crust of bread on the commode, which was molding there amid the dust she flung herself on it and little bit into it, muttering: ‘That’s fantastic! it really is challenging! it breaks my enamel!’ “
Two characters who can conveniently afford to pay for gentle white bread pick instead to take in the pauper’s loaf – in the two scenarios, bread gets to be a barometer of character. The 1st is the fantastic Bishop Myriel, whose frugal breakfast is “rye bread dipped in the milk of his possess cows.”
And the next is Valjean, who is tormented by his tragic earlier. His 5-year sentence balloons to 19 many years simply because of his recurring and unsuccessful tries to escape. When he at some point manages to spring no cost, he will work challenging to develop into an really rich man. But he carries on to take in black bread. Cosette, his beloved adopted daughter, is horrified.
“Father, why do you take in horrible bread like that?”
“Since, my daughter.”
“Very well, if you take in it, I will take in it too.”
Then, in get to avert Cosette consuming black bread, Jean Valjean ate white bread.
There is an unplumbed world of heartbreak and sorrow in that seemingly inarticulate “Since.” Inspite of his long imprisonment and atonement by innumerable acts of charity, Valjean is still haunted by a path of crumbs from the loaf he stole as a youthful man.
Les Misérables was an prompt bestseller, not just in Europe but in the U.S., a nation then in the throes of civil war. It turned the favorite looking through materials of weary Union and Accomplice troops — the latter even called by themselves Lee’s Miserables. A single can picture the hungry men looking through installments by campfire light and relating to the challenging-as-stone bread that Fantine, Eponine and Valjean ate. The Accomplice soldiers as they chewed on their Johnnycakes – griddle cakes made of corn food, salt, and boiling h2o – and the Union soldiers as they gnawed on challenging tack (made from wheat flour, salt, h2o), jeeringly nicknamed jawbreakers and worm castles.
Hugo’s marketing campaign versus poverty wasn’t confined to his creating. Bellos spotlights his unique job in informally initiating the no cost school lunch plan that feeds thousands and thousands of kids today.
Recalling Hugo’s contribution is specifically well timed ideal now, with President Trump’s new spending plan calling for the elimination of the United States’ McGovern-Dole application, which presents meals to thousands and thousands of schoolchildren in weak nations.
All through his political exile on the island of Guernsey, Hugo, getting himself at a free conclude one particular working day whilst ready for a batch of proofs of Les Misérables to arrive, spontaneously invited 10 weak kids to his residence for a food.
“The 1st diner des pauvres, or ‘poor dinner’, was a wonderful accomplishment,” suggests Bellos. “Hugo decided to repeat it just about every other Tuesday.”
As news of the meals distribute, the concept was replicated in the weak parishes of London and other metropolitan areas. “It ultimately led to the introduction of canteens in publicly funded colleges,” writes Bellos. “No cost school lunches, which turned a common ideal in Britain and France only two generations ago, can be traced back straight to the initiative Hugo took.”
Alongside the no cost lunches, Hugo’s wonderful novel, too, has endured. As he wrote so strikingly in the preface: “Where ever men go in ignorance or despair, wherever gals provide by themselves for bread, wherever kids deficiency a reserve to find out from or a warm fireside, Les Misérables knocks at the door and suggests: ‘open up, I am in this article for you.’ “
Nina Martyris is a freelance journalist based mostly in Knoxville, Tenn.